Defining ‘dukkha': The idea of suffering in Buddhism

An article I published in the Myanmar Times on 18th March, 2015.


Defining ‘dukkha’: The idea of suffering in Buddhism

One of the key features of Buddhism is its description of “suffering” (dukkha). Essential to this is the idea that the Buddha’s teachings should not become an object of attachment. If the Buddha’s teachings do become an object of attachment they are liable to be a cause of suffering. Throughout Buddhist history this has formed the cornerstone of much Buddhist philosophy.

In the Pali Canon, which forms the textual basis of Theravada Buddhism, this idea is expressed in a conversation between the Buddha and Dandapani. One can imagine Dandapani as a philosopher, round-shouldered, spending all his time disputing ideas. His name appears to suggest this, literally meaning “stick in hand”, implying that he walks around, leaning on his stick, looking somewhat arrogant.

Hearing of the Buddha, he decides to find out his position – what doctrine he proclaims, what he believes in – and engage him in debate. The philosophically minded young man approaches the Buddha and asks him, “What is the doctrine of the recluse, what does he proclaim?” (kimvadi samano kim akkhayi).

The reply he receives from the Buddha is probably not what he had expected, or particularly wants. He wants a clear doctrine, a set of beliefs, that he can argue with. The Buddha however replies, “I assert and proclaim such a doctrine that one does not argue with anyone in the world … Detached from sense pleasures, without perplexity, remorse cut off.” It is a teaching that leads to complete detachment and freedom from craving and suffering.

Dandapani is clearly confused by what the Buddha has told him: He shakes his head, raises his eyebrows, grimaces three times, and walks away, leaning on his stick. It seems to me that this is the kind of response we can expect to a religious teaching which ultimately leads to the abandoning of all positions, indeed the abandoning of all beliefs.

The Buddha does not propose a set of doctrines that followers of Buddhism should believe in, but makes pronouncements about suffering – its arising, its cessation, and the path to the overcoming of suffering.

When the Buddha began preaching, his first lesson was about the nature of suffering. This teaching is preserved in a discourse called the Dhammacakkappavattana-sutta, (Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion). The term dhamma here has the meaning of the teachings of a Buddha. The text is an indication that the teachings of a Buddha have once again been set in motion. According to the Theravada tradition, all the Buddhas of the past and all the Buddhas in the future will teach a similar teaching. The Buddha’s analysis of the religious path rests on the idea that suffering is an inescapable aspect of all human, animal and godly existence. From the lowest life form to the highest heavenly realm, suffering is an inescapable part of experience.

The Buddha describes this situation by teaching that birth is suffering. Ageing, illness and death are also suffering. He describes attachment with what is displeasing and separation from what is pleasing as suffering. He states that to not get what one wants is suffering. So, when a Buddha preaches, he preaches about suffering.

The idea of suffering is developed in the context of three key themes that were much discussed in the Indian religious context of the time of the Buddha. The first is the idea that all sentient beings are subject to an endless round of rebirths called samsara, or thanthayar in Myanmar language. Within this round of rebirths suffering is unavoidable. Following on from this the second idea is that our actions are causing us to be repeatedly reborn. This is the familiar notion of karma – that all of our actions have consequences. Wholesome actions, those based upon generosity and friendliness, and unwholesome actions, based upon greed and hatred, produce either a positive or negative consequence. But even a good rebirth, in the analysis of the Buddha, will be an impermanent rebirth and this impermanence is a form of suffering. This leads to the final idea: that one should strive to escape from the cycle of rebirths and achieve liberation. In Buddhism liberation is termed nibbana, literally the “blowing out” of greed, hatred and delusion, and the escape from the endless cycle of rebirths.

Suffering is then part of all forms of existence. The term does not merely point to physical suffering, but also to mental suffering and anxiety. Everything pertaining to an unenlightened individual is, on the final analysis, suffering. Even happiness is subject to certain conditions and when these conditions are dismantled happiness will disappear.

There is an important point to be made here about Buddhist culture. The Buddhist monastic is removed from society and is symbolically closer to understanding suffering. Through emulating the Buddha they are thought worthy of respect and donations. In this way we might gain an understanding of one of the reasons that reverence is shown to the monk in Buddhist societies.

The first form of suffering described by the Buddha is physical pain – the pain you feel when touching something hot, for example. The second way of describing suffering is that of change. As all things are “impermanent” (anicca), everything changes and becomes otherwise. The third way that suffering is described is that of conditions. This means that we rely on certain unstable conditions for our happiness and these conditions are unreliable. The conditioned and unstable nature of existence means that the world is frustrating.

It is in the context of the Buddhist description of suffering that we might better appreciate why the Buddha replied to Dandapani in the manner he is reported to have done. In an important sense Buddhism teaches a doctrine whereby the follower of Buddhism does not argue with anyone in the world. Elsewhere in the Pali Canon it is explained that to argue and dispute with others leads to worry, vexation and remorse. Obstinately defending any position with the idea “only this is true, anything else is wrong” (idam eva saccam, moggam annan ti) will lead to even more suffering.

Therefore, in an important way Buddhism is not a belief system but a description of how to escape from an endless cycle of suffering. Throughout the history of Buddhism its philosophers have been concerned with this fundamental idea contained in the Buddha’s teachings: namely, that to believe too rigidly in what the Buddha taught, in the dhamma, is a form of attachment and therefore a cause of suffering. In many ways, Buddhist philosophy is based upon this idea.

Paul Fuller has taught religious studies at universities in Southeast Asia, Australia and the United Kingdom. His research interests include early Indian Buddhist philosophy, the Buddhist ideas of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and ethnocentric Buddhism in Myanmar and Sri Lanka.

New Zealand man found guilty of insulting religion in Myanmar


As reported by the BBC Phil Blackwood,Tun Thurein and Htut Ko Ko Lwin have been given two-and-a-half years hard labour for ‘insulting religion’ in Burma. The idea of blasphemy in Buddhism is highlighted by this case as the three were sentenced today:

A New Zealander and two Burmese men have been found guilty of insulting religion in Myanmar over a poster promoting a drinks event depicting Buddha with headphones.

Philip Blackwood, who managed the VGastro Bar in Yangon, was arrested in December along with bar owner Tun Thurein and colleague Htut Ko Ko Lwin.

They have each been sentenced to two and a half years in jail.

Burmese law makes it illegal to insult or damage any religion.

The poster, which was posted on Facebook and showed Buddha surrounded by psychedelic colours, sparked an angry response online.

Myanmar, also known as Burma, has seen growing Buddhist nationalism in recent years.

All three men had denied insulting religion during their trial. Tun Thurein had also told the court that Blackwood alone was responsible for the posting. Blackwood had said sorry online and repeated his apology in court.

He told the BBC’s Jonah Fisher in Yangon before he entered court on Tuesday: “Hopefully a bit of justice is going to happen.”

But the judge, Ye Lwin, said that though Blackwood apologised, he had “intentionally plotted to insult religious belief” when he uploaded the poster on Facebook, reported AFP news agency.

Buddhist nationalism has been on the rise in recent years, with extremist monks such as Wirathu growing in popularity and increasing clashes with Muslim minorities, particularly in Rakhine state.

Some excellent reporting can also be found in the Deocratic Voice of Burma:’Buddha Bar trio sentenced to 2.5 years with hard labour‘.

Videos on ‘Sri Lanka: a Buddhist cosmology in food’


A great collection of videos on Rita Langer’s website are devoted to the subject of ‘Sri Lanka: a Buddhist cosmology in food‘.

Rita is a senior lecturer in Buddhist Studies at the University of Bristol and she explains the subject of the short documentaries in the following way:

In 2014 I made six documentaries on food offerings in Sri Lanka. The short videos show how Buddhists in Sri Lanka relate to the visible and invisible beings around them including gods, animals, hungry ghosts and monks by way of providing food. The result is a cosmology in food which emerges from the kitchens of Sri Lanka. Some of the offerings are made to avert misfortune, others are made in fulfilment of a vow. They range from very private feeding of crows to large scale public generosity stalls distributing free food to 3000 people. In Sri Lanka cooking is still largely, even though not exclusively, the domain of women and their voices are rarely heard. I decided against a narrator and let the food makers tell their stories in their own words. The videos are in Sinhala with English subtitles.


Women in Indian Buddhism

Buddhist Nuns Yango Rangoon Myanmar Burma

The Numata Center for Buddhist Studies at the University of Hamburg are running a free online course titled ‘Women in Early Indian Buddhism‘ with some leading academics are providing the course content. The details are the following:

Course Outline

The course begins with a focus on early sutta and Vinaya material, in particular setting the situation of Buddhist women in its context through comparison with the Jain and Brahminical traditions. Then the situation as reflected in Mahayana and commentarial literature will be explored, followed by rounding off the study of written records by turning to Indian art. The final lecture will summarize the topics presented during the course and take a closer look at scholarship on women in Indian Buddhism in general.


16 April Analayo: Women in Early Buddhist Discourse

23 April Amy Langenberg: Female Virtue in Two Sanskrit Vinayas

30 April Mari Jväsjarvi Stuart: Women in medieval Buddhist and Jain monasticism

7 May Nalini Balbir: Women in the Buddhist and Jain traditions

14 May Ute Hüsken: Women in the Theravāda Vinaya and the Brahminical Tradition

21 May Reiko Ohnuma: The Nun Thullanandā

28 May Shobha Rani Dash: Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī Narratives

4 June Liz Wilson: Hagiographic Buddhist Texts on Women

11 June Rita Gross: Women in Mahāyāna Sūtra Literature

18 June Alice Collett: Women in Early Buddhist Inscriptions

25 June Naomi Appleton: Women in the Jātaka Collection

2 July Monika Zin: Buddhist Women in Indian Art

9 July Petra Kieffer-Pülz: Summary and Outlook on Scholarship on Women in Buddhism

Registration details are available on the website.


A few years ago at the University of Sydney we held a one day conference on gender issues in Buddhism:





Understanding ‘engaged Buddhism’


An article I wrote that appeared in the Myanmar Times on 16 February:

In 1963, the Vietnamese Zen Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh coined the term “engaged Buddhism”. He did so in order to describe a phenomenon in Buddhism in which one is not simply advised to withdraw from the world in solitary meditation but to combat social and political injustice. Engaged Buddhism is a politically active form of Buddhism.

The full article can be read online here.

Buddhist monk in hot water?


This image is doing the rounds on social media. It shows a Buddhist monk in Isan, in Northeast Thailand. He is presumably displaying the powers of his concentration in meditation, related to the notion of iddhi, and the power of the Buddha’s teachings to protect him from harm.

Whether such displays are permitted by the Buddhist monastic code is open to debate.

Mummified in Meditation


As reported in a number of places the mummified remains of a 200 year old Buddhist monk has been discovered in Mongolia. The remains of the monk is seated in meditation.

Initial speculation is that the mummy could be a teacher of Lama Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov. Dashi-Dorzho Itigilov, born in 1852, was a Buryat Buddhist Lama of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, best known for the lifelike state of his body.

Such ascetic practices would be highly revered in some Buddhist traditions. To die in this position, while in meditation, is an act of extreme discipline and would accrue much merit. There is a Japanese Buddhist practice of sokushinbutsu in which one observes austerities to the point of death while in meditation:
For three years, the priests would eat a special diet consisting only of nuts and seeds, while taking part in a regimen of rigorous physical activity that stripped them of their body fat. They then ate only bark and roots for another three years and began drinking a poisonous tea made from the sap of the urushi tree, normally used to lacquer bowls. This caused vomiting and a rapid loss of bodily fluids, and–most importantly–it killed off any maggots that might cause the body to decay after death. Finally, a self-mummifying monk would lock himself in a stone tomb barely larger than his body, wherein he would not move from the lotus position. His only connection to the outside world was an air tube and a bell. Each day, he rang a bell to let those outside know that he was still alive. When the bell stopped ringing, the tube was removed and the tomb sealed.
It would not be uncommon for other Buddhist traditions to venerate a someone who dies in meditation. In many cases these would be venerated as ‘relics’ (Śarīra).